Personal tools
You are here: Home Blog (English) More Emacs - a better eshell


More Emacs - a better eshell

Posted by Ricardo Bánffy at Sep 05, 2011 01:35 PM |
Filed under: , , , , ,

Some Emacs users live their entire lives without ever meeting eshell. Eshell is a command-line shell where you can run programs, list directories, copy files and do all kinds of things you would normally need a terminal window for. Eshell even made a cameo appearance in Tron Legacy, as the command-line interface to Encom's computers. Unfortunately, there is something it won't do: it's not easy to start more than one eshell session - when you invoke eshell for the second time, it goes back to the buffer the first eshell opened, normally called "*eshell*". I could invoke the "rename-uniquely" command manually after opening each eshell window (or before attempting to open a new one), but that's annoying (and I ofen forget it).

I keep eshell bound to C-$ (control-$ for the emacs-illiterate ou ^$ for really old-school folks - not that any keyboard I know of emits valid ASCII when someone presses Control-$). I often need more than one shell. "ansi-term" will do the buffer-renaming magic and I can start a number of those, but that's not really what I want - ansi-term runs the shell as a separate process. I use it when I need things I'd need another terminal for, like input and output redirection, but I'd prefer to use eshell when all I need is another shell.

Unfortunate people who don't use Emacs will think I would need to dig up the sources of eshell to add the rename-uniquely invocation and change them. I'll remind those poor folks than your init.el file is, in fact, executed when Emacs starts and, therefore, all I need to do is to change my binding from

(global-set-key (kbd "C-$") 'eshell)


(global-set-key (kbd "C-$") '(lambda () 

In case you are wondering, the "interactive" function is invoked to mark this function as a command. If I didn't do it (as I foolishly did earlier this morning, before reading this) I'd be greeted with

Wrong type argument: commandp, (lambda nil (eshell) (rename-uniquely))

That's nice, but not perfect. If you invoke it, you will notice your first eshell buffer is named "*eshell*<2>". That's bad.

It happens because the buffer is uniquely renamed every time it's created, not only when there already is a buffer named "*eshell*". For that, we need a little more code:

(global-set-key (kbd "C-$") '(lambda () 
                               (if (member "*eshell*" (mapcar* 'buffer-name 
                                   (progn (eshell)

OK. That was stupid. We test whether there is already a buffer named "*eshell*" and then we try to invoke eshell to create a new one, forgetting that eshell will also find the buffer called "*eshell*" and switch to it rather than creating a new one. We then, dumbly, rename our only eshell buffer.

This thing needs more brains.

Since I don't expect to have more than a handful eshells running (you really shouldn't try to), progressing through numbered buffer names until we find a free one should be a fine approach:

(global-set-key (kbd "C-$") '(lambda () 
                               (let ((i 1)
                                     (found-a-name nil))
                                 (while (not found-a-name)
                                   (setq buffname 
                                         (concat "*eshell*<" (int-to-string i) ">"))
                                   (setq found-a-name (not (member buffname 
                                                                   (mapcar* 'buffer-name 
                                   (if found-a-name 
                                       (eshell i)
                                     (setq i (+ i 1))

Now we start from i = 1 and check if there is already a buffer named "*eshell*<i>". If there is not, create one with that name (passing the number to eshell) and end our search. This is doubly pretty, because the first solution would rename our first eshell as "*eshell*<2>". With this one, the first eshell is "*eshell*<1>", which is elegant. If you manually open an eshell, it'll be called "*eshell*", distinguishing it from our automatically named shells.

Still, as a friend of mine well pointed out, the code is really ugly. It'll also fail if the default name for eshell buffers is changed. In short, it's a mess. I felt compelled to do better:

(global-set-key (kbd "C-$") 
                '(lambda () 
                   (let ((i 1))
                   (while (member (concat eshell-buffer-name "<" (int-to-string i) ">")
                                  (mapcar* 'buffer-name (buffer-list)))
                     (setq i (+ 1 i)))
                   (eshell i))))

Much more concise and to-the-point. I like it.

Can you customize Eclipse like that?

A bug. Yes, they hit me too

After publishing this, I noticed the variable eshell-buffer-name is not defined until after you invoke eshell for the first time. If you try to C-$ on a freshly started Emacs session, you'll get a

Symbol's value as variable is void: eshell-buffer-name

message. In order to fix this, the code must check whether eshell-buffer-name is bound and, if it's not, we start the buffer giving it a 1.

(global-set-key (kbd "C-$")
                '(lambda ()
                   (let ((i 1))
                     (if (boundp 'eshell-buffer-name)
                           (while (member (concat eshell-buffer-name "<" (int-to-string i) ">")
                                          (mapcar* 'buffer-name (buffer-list)))
                             (setq i (+ 1 i)))
                           (eshell i))
                       (eshell 1))))

OK. Now I am satisfied.

Edit: And now, I feel stupid

A friend of mine, very politely, possibly to avoid embarrassing me in public, sent me an e-mail pointing out he didn't quite understood what I was trying to accomplish here. In his message, he pointed out I could just invoke (eshell t). When passed "t" (boolean true in Lisp) as a parameter, eshell does precisely what I wanted it to do. So, the new version in my init.el is even shorter:

(global-set-key (kbd "C-$") '(lambda () (interactive) (eshell t)))

Well... At least I learned something.